Clinical Psychology

Human mentality and behaviour is constantly in dynamic interaction with biological processes and altogether, these are in constant dynamic interaction with past, present and projected in time external and internal stimuli. Therefore, even in cases that medication works sufficiently upon symptomatology of a disorder, the individual still needs to engage in psychotherapy in order to explore and resolve past, present and projected into the future learned cognitive patterns, emotions and behaviour in relation to his own self, to others and to the world. These have been continuously forming in us while we are growing in our social environments, and are in timeless constant interaction with biological processes; dynamically influencing biological processes and being influenced by biological processes.

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The symptoms of depression differ from usual sadness or mood changes that people experience in their everyday lives.

People with Major Depression Disorder experience depressed mood for almost all day or all day and everyday or almost everyday, or experience severely diminished interest/pleasure in all or almost all activities

Read a short overview of depression


Anxiety Disorders are characterized by abnormal worry, anxiety, hyperarousal and excessive fear and are strongly related to subsequent onset of Major Depression, if remained untreated (Kessler & Greenberg, 2002).

Read a short overview of anxiety disorders

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Manic and hypomanic episodes are periods of time during which the individual experiences an extraordinary abnormal elevated energy – not necessarily “joy” – along with symptoms such as pervasive distractibility, extremely racing thoughts, abnormal reduced need of sleep or incapability to sleep. Patients may also experience psychotic symptoms. Symptoms pertaining at least four consecutive days, for most of the day, are considered as of an hypomanic episode, while symptoms persisting at least one week are considered as of a manic episode (DSM-5).

Read a short overview of bipolar disorders

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Obsessions are thoughts, urges or images that are felt as intrusive and unwanted, which cause the individual marked anxiety and distress. The individual respond with devoting considerable time on compulsions, such as repetitive acts.

Read a short overview of OCD

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Patients with PTSD have experienced or witnessed serious life-threatening event(s) or death, severe injury or sexual violence and suffer from intrusion symptoms re-experiencing the trauma traumatic event as well as from persistent avoidance of memories, avoidance of emotions and stimuli associated to the traumatic event.

Read a short overview of PTSD

Schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders are characterized by the presence of the namely “positive” (delusions or/and hallucinations) and “negative” symptoms. The “positive symptoms” of psychosis are called “positive” because these can be conceptualized as being exerted levels of normal functions.

Accordingly, the “negative symptoms” can be considered as diminution of normal functioning (anhedonia: inability to feel pleasure; avolition: diminished volition; alogia: diminished speech; and flattened affect).

Negative symptoms are also present in other psychopathological conditions, such as in Major Depression Disorder and plenty others (Hovington & Lepage, 2012).

Read a short overview of Schizophrenia Disorder